ULTRASOUND OF THE FOOT - Normal

Plantar fascia origin scan plane Normal plantar fascia origin
Plantar fascia origin scan plane Normal plantar fascia origin on the calcaneum. Tension enthesopaphytes are common here. Follow the fibres anteriorly through the arch.
Anterior forefoot MTPJ
Anterior forefoot Assess the extensor tendons dynamically for pathology. Check the underlying joints (with minimal probe pressure) for effusions.
Plantar plate scan plane Plantar plate ultrasound
Plantar plate scan plane The plantar plate is seen arising from the base of the proximal phalanx on the plantar aspect. You should gently extend the toe to visualise fully.
Forefoot scan plane  

Normal fore foot anatomy
Forefoot scan plane  

ULTRASOUND OF THE FOOT PROTOCOL

ROLE OF ULTRASOUND

Ultrasound is used for the soft tissue structures of the foot.

Ultrasound is a valuable diagnostic tool in assessing the following indications;

  • Muscular, tendinous and ligamentous damage (chronic and acute)
  • Plantar plates
  • Bursitis
  • Soft tissue masses such as ganglia, lipomas Morton’s neuromas
  • Plantar fascia
  • Joint effusions
  • Vascular pathology
  • Haematomas
  • Classification of a mass eg solid, cystic, mixed
  • Post surgical complications eg abscess, oedema
  • Guidance of injection, aspiration or biopsy
  • Some bony pathology.


 

LIMITATIONS

The thick skin on the sole of the foot will require higher gain and/or power settings. You my need to use a lower frequency probe, particularly at the hind foot.

 

EQUIPMENT SELECTION AND TECHNIQUE

Use of a high resolution probe (7-15MHZ) is essential when assessing the superficial structures of the foot. Careful scanning technique to avoid anisotropy (and possible misdiagnosis). Beam steering or compounding can help to overcome anisotropy in linear structures such as tendons. Good colour / power / Doppler capabilities when assessing vessels or vascularity of a structure. Be prepared to change frequency output of probe (or probes) to adequately assess both superficial and deeper structures.

 

SCANNING TECHNIQUE

HIND FOOT

For example images, click here to goto the Foot pathology page.

Plantar Fascia:
Patient prone on bed, foot flexed with toes on the bed for support. Place the probe over the midline of the heel on the plantar aspect. The toe of the probe towards the heel. The plantar fascia will be seen as a fibrillar structure inserting onto the calcaneum (See pic). It should be flat and homogenous.

MID FOOT

Plantar Fibromatosis:
The patient will generally present with on or more palpable thickenings in the arch of their foot. Follow the plantar fascia into the arch and look for fusiform, nodular thickenings. They may be subtle and more numerous than can be palpated.

FOREFOOT

Begin by scanning each metatarso-phalangeal joint for effusions, synovial thickenings or ganglia. Assess the extensor then flexor aspects.

Morton’s neuroma V's Bursa:

Scan in transverse across the plantar aspect of the metatarsal heads.

Utilise the 'Mulder’s technique' to elicit a click and visualise any correlating pathology. This involves gripping across the anterior forefoot whilst scanning the plantar aspect. Use a knuckle of your gripping hand to simultaneously apply pressure between the metatarsal heads as you squeeze across the foot.

A Morton's neuroma will be seen as a non compressible, hypoechoic rounded mass at the metatarsal head interspace. Similarly, a thickened intermetatarsal bursa will be a hypoechoic area between the metatarsal heads but will be compressible and avascular. It will be seen to bulge out the plantar aspect and correspond to the Mulder's click.

Plantar plates:

Scan in longitudinal over the plantar aspect of the metatarso-phalageal joints. The plantar plate is readily seen as a homogeneous elongated wedge arising from the base of the proximal phalanx extending under the head of the metatarsal

View with the toes slightly extended

Check for tears, calcification and heterogeneity (suggesting degeneration)

Foreign body

Ensure you approach the proposed site of the foreign body from different angles. Some materials will be poorly reflective and almost invisible unless the beam is perpendicular to them. There will usually be a surrounding hypoechoic halo representing an inflammatory reaction

identify the plane of tissue it is in, how close it is to the entry wound and to any blood vessels. It may be helpful to mark the location and orientation of the foreign body on the skin to guide removal.

Joint Abnormalities

  • Joint effusions:
  • Gout: Abnormal uric acid metabolism resulting in joint inflammation. May see tophaceous gout as a complex echogenic mass (tophus) in the soft
  • Osteoarthritis: Bony irregularity at the bone ends with joint effusion. When acute the joint will be hyperaemic
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Thickened synovium with a complex 'thick' joint effusion, pannus & associated boney iregularity.

Tendon abnormalities

  • Check for tendon thickening (compare with other side)
  • Fluid in the tendon sheath
  • Integrity of the tendon- any tear?
  • does the tendon slide freely when mobilised?

COMMON PATHOLOGY

Text here

BASIC HARD COPY IMAGING

Hard copy imaging should reflect the anatomy investigated.

  • Document the normal anatomy. Any pathology found in 2 planes, including measurements and any vascularity.

 


 
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